Skip to main content

Full text of "Quebec, the historical city"

See other formats



J Qfy 





The Historical City 

(By the City Clerk) 

n presenting this Booklet to our distinguished guests and visitors, 
the Mayor, the Aldermen and the citizens of Quebec trust that 
the following information will prove very useful to them. It 
will not only bring to their notice the beautiful and picturesque 
sceneries and historical landmarks which have made Quebec known all 
over the world, but also lead them to appreciate the ancient capital of 
French Canada as the Gateway to our prosperous Dominion. By its nat- 
ural sea port it is now a most attractive and promising centre for trade 
and commerce. 


Solid as a rock, Quebec City is built on a promontory rising over 350 
feet above the mighty St. Lawrence river. 

At first encircled within the fortification walls, the old City, founded 
in 1608 by Samuel Champlain, has quickly outspread in the suburbs and 
now forms six separate wards: Champlain, St. John-the-Baptist, Mont- 
calm, St. Roch, St. Sauveur and Limoilou, this last division being separ- 
ated from the main part of the city by the St. Charles river. 

Our population, mainly French speaking, is growing steadily and now 
counts over 133,000 inhabitants living on an area of 6,380 acres. The 
value of property is $164,000,000. 

If we consider the ever increasing demand for building permits and 
the careful administration of the Sanitary Lodgings for Workmen, recently 
established by the Government, we find very encouraging prospects 
for the future development of Quebec. Factories of all kinds give work 
to thousands of expert hands and we are in hopes that local or foreign 
capital will soon create in Quebec large and powerful industries. The 
Canadian National Workshops and the Anglo-Canadian Pulp & Paper 


<§> fPAGE 2j <$> 

Mills have set an example which should be followed by. many other con- 
cerns. The field is always wide open to competition and our local Board 
of Trade has achieved wonderful success in that line. 

With the generous co-operation of the Federal Government, our Har- 
bour Commission is now spending $13,500,000. for wharves and transpor- 
tation facilities which will soon cover the whole line of our waterfront and 
give shelter to the largest steamers in the world. Grain elevators, cold- 
storages and two large drydocks are now in full operation during the 
navigating season, which generally lasts from the 1st of April to the end 
of December. 

Since the inauguration, in 1919, of the Quebec Bridge, which spans 
over the St. Lawrence river, our City has become the center of two trans- 
continental railways and six subsidiary lines, besides our two electric 
railways, one of which covers over 30 miles within the city limits and the 
other connects Quebec and Ste. Anne de Beaupre, the famous shrine, 
passing through the oldest towns and villages of French Canada, with a 
stop at Montmorency Falls. Many sight-seeing cars and busses, taxis of 
all kinds assure to the visitors safe and rapid transit. Those who appre- 
ciate "local color" may use the old caleche. 

Besides the Ferry service between Quebec, Levis and the Island of 
Orleans, the Canada Steamship Lines and the Clarke Steamship Company 
offer to the tourists the best opportunities of visiting the Summer resorts 
up and down the St. Lawrence river. 

Quebec now stands second to none for tourist accommodation. Many 
hotels, boarding houses and restaurants of the highest standard give 
shelter to thousands of visitors during the whole year. Dominating the 
wonderful Dufferin Terrace with its central tower eighteen stories high, 
the palatial Chateau Frontenac, operated by the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, is the most magnificent hotel in the Dominion of Canada. Here are 
held, each year, most important conventions and festivals. 

Our local Clubs provide first class Winter Sports during the Carnival 
and, in Summer, the Quebec Provincial Exhibition, under municipal 
control, is always in full swing. Skating, skiing, tobogganning, snowshoeing 
and dog derby are among the most popular amusements during the cold 
and healthy season, while in the immediate vicinity all kinds of outdoors 
sports await the tourists during the fair months of Summer: golf, tennis, 
baseball, canoeing, yachting, fishing, hunting, etc. 

Our Provincial highways and automobile routes are among the very 
best in the Dominion. Each year, thousands of tourists come from all 
over the United States and Canada and they find on their way all possible 
accommodation and help. The Quebec Automobile Club and affiliated 
Clubs extend the most accurate information to those who come here and 

<§> fPAGE 4j <♦> 

they provide them with official historical literature. Historical Guides 
may also be engaged upon demand. 

We earnestly trust that all tourists and travellers who visit our his- 
toric City will carry home a pleasant remembrance of their passage here 
and that they will have a kind word to say of our dear old Quebec, of its 
growing importance, of its brilliant prospects for the near future and of 
the warm and cordial hospitality of its inhabitants. 


The territory on which now stands the City of Quebec, cradle of New 
France and Gibraltar of America, was first sighted in 1535 by Jacques 
Cartier, discoverer of Canada. On the St. Charles river, near the Lairet 
stream (known under the Indian name of Cabir Coubat), at 400 miles 
from the sea, the illustrious sailor and his men established their Winter 
quarters on board their small "caravelles": La Grande Hermine, La Petite 
Hermine and L'Emerillon. They were solemnly welcomed by Donna- 
cona, Agohanna or King of Stadacone, on the very place where later on 
was built the capital city of French Canada. 

First visited in 1603 and founded in 1608 by Samuel Champlain, a 
nobleman of Brouage (Saintonge), Quebec has been, during the French 
domination, the seat of the central power and. the heart of New France. 
Within its walls were written the most brilliant pages of our History. 
Each stone of its old buildings recalls to the citizens the gallant deeds of 
its founders, the devotion of its first pastors and missionaries, the virtue 
and faithfullness of the humble settlers who had come from France to 
create a New World. 

For many years, without practically any help from the Motherland, 
our forefathers had to fight against the fierce attacks of the Iroquois tribes; 
later on, they also suffered severe assaults and memorable sieges from the 
British fleets and. armies who were hostile to French expansion in the 
New World: in 1629, the Kirtk brothers; in 1690, Admiral Phipps, so 
bravely resisted by the haughty Governor Frontenac; in 1711, Sir Hoven- 
den Walker, whose death in a shipwreck saved the Colony. 

Splendid, monuments recall the sacred, memory of our national heroes: 
Jacques Cartier, Champlain, Hebert, the first settler, Laval, the father 
of the Roman Catholic Church, in Canada, and many others which may 
be seen in the annexed illustrated pages. 

In this City of Quebec, last rampart of the French armies in America, 
were gathered, on the 13th of September, 1759, the supreme defenders, 
carrying in their arms the unfortunate Montcalm, wounded to death, and 
on its sacred, walls floated for the last time the white flag of Royal France. 
A splendid monument now commemorates the heroic death of the two 
gallant foes, Wolfe and. Montcalm, whose supreme sacrifice is jointly 

# fPAGE 6j <$> 

praised in an eloquent epitaph. The next year, Levis took a royal revenge 
on General Murray at Ste. Foy, near Quebec. During the Tercentenary 
celebration, in 1908, the Government of Canada appointed the National 
Battlefields Commission which created on the very site of these decisive 
encounters a beautiful memorial Park. 


Under the British domination, Quebec was for many years more the 
seat of the Government, and the citizens, having duly appreciated the 
generosity and fairplay of their former foes, gave their blood and their 
lives to repulse the American invasion of Montgomery, in 1775. Many 
among them were also with Salaberry, in 1812, when he won that immor- 
tal victory of Chateauguay. 

Having at last left the battlefield for the parliamentary arena, the 
City of Champlain, on many instances, carried on splendid victories and 
it- is certainly due to the courage and ability of its debaters if French 
Canada has kept gloriously for so many years the sacred inheritance of our 
forefathers: our Faith, our Language and our Rights. 

In 1832, a royal decree elevated Quebec to the rank of a City and 
handed over the civic administration to a Mayor, assisted by a Council 
of Aldermen elected by the people for the first time in 1833. This form of 
administration still exists and the success achieved in the past seems most 
encouraging for the near future. 

We are proud to state that, within our historic walls, on the site of 
the old Parliament Building, were signed, in 1864, by the Fathers of 
Confederation the preliminaries of the pact which, in 1867, gave birth to 
the Dominion of Canada. 


Those heroic days have past forever. Quebec is now turning a new page 
of its history and cherishes the hopes that the future will be worthy of its 
three hundred years of sacrifice and glory. 

During the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation which was celebrated, 
in 1927, with such magnificence, French and English fellow-citizens 
have strengthened more deeply than ever the bonds of friendship which 
have long existed between them. They will thus assure the develop- 
ment and prosperity of Canada at large and more especially of their dear 
old Quebec. 

Setting a wonderful example for the sister-provinces, they have the 
highest respect for the minorities. But they also firmly stick to their old 
traditions, to their faith and language. This faithfulness to their most 
sacred principles proves their love of the soil which was opened to civiliza- 
tion by their great ancestors. This furthermore explains why so many 

<S> ffPAGE 811 <& 

French Canadian soldiers died for their King and Country during the 
Great War, for if they always cherish their French Motherland, of the 
past, they have also learned to love and respect Great Britain for her 
devotion to freedom and justice. 

Thanks to the co-operation of all the citizens, Quebec has always been 
faithful to its motto: 


Built on solid rock, Quebec has grown steadily and has proudly main- 
tained its high reputation as a progressive center of trade and commerce 
and also as the most beautiful city of French Canada. 


The commerce, wholesale and retail, has been maintained to a very 
honourable standard since the Great War. Of course, several firms have 
been swept off during the financial crisis, but, as a rule, most of them have 
been very successful. Some great Canadian or American firms have lately 
established local branch stores and they will soon be followed by many 

Our local industry is also a source of wealth for many fellow-citizens. 

Quebec, cradle of New France, gave birth to the Canadian industry. 
Jean Talon, the illustrious "intendant", pupil of the great Colbert, wrote 
in 1671: "I find in the Canadian industry all what I need to dress myself 
from foot to head". 

The celebrated "Relation des Jesuites", in 1668, mentioned, in its 
records the creation of the first Canadian factories: shoes, hats, woollens, 
leather and cloth made in Quebec with local products. Talon also created 
the first Canadian breweries "in order to encourage the drinking of beer 
instead of alcoholic liquors". 

The local industries cover a very large field. Unfortunately this fact 
is not well enough known by the outsiders. On this historical spot where 
Jacques Cartier first landed, in 1535, now stands a wonderfully progressing 
City, with various flourishing industrial and commercial establishments, 
as shown by the statistics published on the following pages. 

In the industrial census published in 1927 by the Federal Statistics 
Bureau, the City of Quebec occupied the sixth rank amongst the largest 
cities of the Dominion. 

With the great transportation facilities offered by the way of the St. 
Lawrence river and the two transcontinental railways, with the capital 
which is now invested in the Canadian trade and commerce, with the help 
of thousands of probe and law-abiding workmen, the City of Quebec is 
assured of the greatest industrial development. 

The abundance of electric power at low rates, the proximity of raw 

<S> fPAGE 101 ~ <$> 

material, the immense space of ground still opened to the establishing of 
new workshops and factories, the comparatively low rate of taxes, alone 
indicate our future development for trade and commerce as well as for 


From the Dufferin Terrace, the visitors embrace a panoramic view 
of the majestic St. Lawrence river. On the left side, the Island of Orleans, 
once known as the "Island of Bacchus", for its natural vines, now appears 
in all its glory with its gardens of flowers, its splendid trees, its picturesque 
roadways, leading to exquisite cottages where hundreds of citizens have 
established their Summer residence . . . Across the giant river in front of 
Quebec, the City of Levis, Lauzon, St. Romuald, leading to the Quebec 
Bridge on the South Shore. At the right, the old Citadel and fortification 
walls, Sillery, Spencerwood, the Vice-Royal Manor of the Lieutenant 
Governor, with its wonderful gardens. And further down, on the main- 
land, facing the Island of Orleans, the old "Chemin du Roi" passing 
through the most ancient French towns and villages: Maizerets, Beauport, 
the Kent-House and Montmorency Falls (265 feet high and 150 feet wide) , 
L'Ange-Gardien, Chateau-Richer, Ste. Anne de Beaupre, the sacred 
pilgrimage shrine of America, and St. Joachim, partly owned by the 
Quebec Seminary, where may be found some of the oldest feudal do- 
mains of the French Regime. Not far from Quebec, tourists may also 
visit the town of Lorette, where they will be most interested in seeing the 
Huron village. Lake St. Joseph, famous for its annual Regatta, is a most 
fashionable Summer resort. Motorists may go there in about one hour 
through fairly good roads. 


The Seminary, the Basilica, the Hotel Dieu, the Jesuits' College on the 
site of the City Hall, the Recollet Friars, 2nd convent, (site of the English 
Cathedral); Madame Pean's House, Surgeon Arnoux's house, in which 
Montcalm died, September, 1759; The Ursulines, the General Hospital 
(old convent of Recollet Fathers); the Intendant's Palace (Boswell's 
vaults); Notre-Dame des Victoires; La Friponne, (Bigot's stores, St. 
Paul St.); Martello Towers; old Artillery Barracks, the Citadel and the 
Fortifications, (built in 1823 and following years, cost $35,000,000.00), 
Chateau Bigot, (Charlesbourg) ; Bishop Laval's seigniorial manor (now 
the Old Mill of "L'Ange Gardien"); the shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre, 
Chateau Renvoyze, Ste. Anne de Beaupre, (now the Franciscan sisters 
convent and hostelry) Chateau Bellevue, Seminary Farms, (St. Joachim) 
in which Mgr. de Laval established the first agricultural college, and the 
first schools of arts and mechanical trades and Home training. 


"TlT 5 

9t -BE 


(By the City Archivist and Statistician) 

WELCOME TO TOURISTS :— Tourists are welcomed in Quebec in 
a true spirit of cordial hospitality characteristic of the Old French pioneers 
in this country. 

Owing to its geographical situation, to the beauty and picturesqueness 
of its scenery, to the remarkable style in the ornamental sculptures and 
architectural features of its main public buildings, to its attractions both 
as a Summer and a Winter Resort, for which it is world famed, the Histo- 
rical City is visited by a steadily increasing number of tourists, every year, 
from all parts of the North American Continent, even from abroad. 

HOTEL ACCOMMODATION:— More than 3,000 rooms are avail- 
able in local hotels and rooming houses. Ten large hotels provide the 
latest comfort, while in the others and in more than 170 rooming houses 
there are modern installations. 

BOARDING FEES:— Rooms from $1.50 per day and meals from 
50 cents up are the average charges for tourists. 

CAMPING GROUND:— Within the limits of the City, a free 
camping ground supplies accommodation, with up-to-date equipment. 

ATTRACTIONS: — Summer attractions include trips around the 
City, then to the Quebec Bridge, to Montmorency Falls and Ste. Anne de 
Beaupre. Visitors will be interested in seeing the following places: — Duffe- 
rin Terrace, Chateau Frontenac, Champlain Monument, Governor's 
Garden, Wolfe and Montcalm Monument, Place d'Armes Square, Monu- 
ment to Faith, Court House, Duke of Kent's House, English Cathedral, 
New Post Office, Laval Monument, Cardinal's Palace, Montmorency 
Park, Cartier Monument, French Cathedral, Quebec Seminary, Tasche- 
reau Monument, City Hall, Hebert Monument, Commercial Academy, 
Dominion Arsenal, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Grand Battery, Laval Univer- 
sity, the Remparts, Ursuline Convent, Esplanade, South African Monu- 
ment. Garrison Club, Citadel; St. Louis, Kent and St. John Gates; Gar- 
neau Monument, Cross of Sacrifice, Mercier Monument, Parliament 
Buildings Drill Hall, Shortt-Wallick Monument, Montcalm Monument, 
Martello Towers, Wolfe Monument, Plains of Abraham, National Battle- 
fields Park, Spencer Wood (Lieutenant-Governor's Residence), Monu- 
ment to the Braves (On Ste. Foye Road), St. Sacrement Hospital (New), 

# {[page 14] «fe> 

Technical School, Quebec Power Building, Cartier-Brebeuf Monument 
(Limoilou), Notre-Dame des Victoires Church (Lower Town), and Martin 
Monument Column (Louise Embankment). 

Beyond the city limits there are the Great Quebec Bridge ; the Indian 
Village, at Lorette; Quebec Waterworks Intake, the Chateau d'Eau, also 
at Lorette; Valcartier Military Camp; Lake St. Joseph; Chateau Bigot; 
Montmorency Falls; Shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre; Seven Falls, at 
St. Ann; Island of Orleans and the Levis Forts, the latter on the South 
Shore of the St. Lawrence River. 

FISH AND GAME: — Fish and Game territories are easily reached 
within a few miles from the City. 

WINTER SPORTS:— Quebec's Winter Sports are also world-wide 
reputed. They are Tobogganing, Skating, Snowshoeing, Ski-Ing, Ski- 
jumping, Curling (with regular Bonspiels,) Hockey Games, Husky-Dog 
Sledding, Carnival Celebrations, Masquerades and one of the main 
features: The International Dog-Sled Derby. 

Special entertainments, concerts, historical pageants and plays have 
recently been added to the Winter Programmes and have been successful 
even beyond expectation. A Winter Sports Committee has been entrusted 
with the organization; it is composed of prominent citizens belonging to 
all classes in society. 

HISTORICAL GUIDES:— Quebec has an Association of Histori- 
cal Guides and their services are more and more appreciated by visitors. 
Our Historical Guides follow special courses in history and learn as 
much as possible of the information which is needed by tourists. A certi- 
ficate of competency is necessary for them to benefit by the membership 
the Association and to be called on active service. Every Guide has a 
special number and some of them are even good chauffeurs. 

QUEBEC AUTOMOBILE CLUB:— The Quebec Automobile 
Club give the tourists, as well as their local members, most valuable and 
highly appreciated information; their services are also recommended. 
The offices of the Club are located at the corner of Buade and Garden 
Streets, next to the French Cathedral and the City Hall Square. A com- 
petent and courteous staff facilitate the task for visitors to find accommo- 
dation and to trace itineraries to suit the time they have to spend in the 
City. The organization of the Winter Sports is also in their hands and 
they keep special quarters for the Historical Guides. 

DESCRIPTION :— The City of Quebec, the Capital of the Province 
of Quebec, the pioneer of civilization on this North American Continent, 
founded, in 1608, by Samuel Champlain, has been 152 years under 
French domination and 168 years under British administration, the seat 
of Canadian Government, for many years, before Confederation, in 1867. 

LOCATION:— 71° 12' 23" 4 Longitude West of Greenwich and 
46° 48' 22" 9 Latitude North, at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and 
St. Charles Rivers, 400 miles from high seas and 180 miles East of Montreal. 

ALTITUDE:— Varying from 5 to 350 feet above the level of the St. 
Lawrence River. 

Ipage 181 <$> 

AN INDUSTRIAL CENTRE:— Industrial and commercial inves- 
tors will find here uncompared sites for the opening of new industries, at 
fair prices; special advantages awarded by the municipal authorities; daily 
communications with most prosperous farming districts on both shores 
of the St. Lawrence River; a population of 133,000 within the city limits, 
of 300,000 within 50 miles and of 400,000 within 100 miles; more than 
300,000 visitors, every year; a distributing point for the natural resources 
of a large wealth-producing region; the best transport facilities, rail, 
water and highway, in Canada; nine railway lines entering the city and 
making daily connections with all the transportation systems in America ; 
plenty of skilled and unskilled labour, at favorable conditions; any 
amount of electrical power, at reasonable rates. 

A NATIONAL SEA-PORT:— The port of Quebec could easily har- 
bour the combined fleets of the great naval powers of the world; it is prov- 
ided with modern accommodation; an ocean terminal for vessels of the 
heaviest tonnage; six miles of deep water frontage; open for navigation 
during eight months in the year; wonderful natural advantages further 
improved by works for a total amount of $30,000,000. within 25 years; 
grain elevators, immigration buildings and inspection system; adequate 
administration by men with high experience. 

A TOURIST MECCA:— The Old Historical City offers a vivid con- 
trast with all that has been seen elsewhere; a characteristic appearance of 
an old city of Normandy; sites where most of the capital events in the his- 
tory of Canada, for centuries, took place; beauty and picturesqueness of 
scenery unsurpassed even by world-famed Naples; monuments and 
memorial tablets reminding the glorious deeds of our heroes; HISTORI- 
CAL GUIDES to supply accurate, interesting and reliable information 
to visitors; modern accommodation and comfort in modern hotels and 
rooming houses. 

CLIMATE: — Although the temperature may reach a maximum of 
94 and fall down to a minimum of 30 below zero, the City of Quebec has a 
rather temperate climate with an average heat of 70 and very few records 
of below zero spells. Quebecers often enjoy a tempering health-giving 
breeze from the St. Lawrence which brings relief and comfort. 

POPULATION:— Our population is 133,000. According to the 
figures of the last municipal census, made by our City Assessors, in 1927, 
the citizens of Old Quebec were as follows: — 118,837 Catholic French 
Canadians; 92 Protestant French Canadians; 6,185 English speaking 
Catholics; 5,247 English speaking Protestants; 430 Jews; 160 Chinese and 
120 Greeks, making a total of 131,071. The average increase in popula- 
tion, for the last six years, having been 3,000, a year, the present figures 
are estimated to be 133,000; they have been confirmed by the recent com- 
pilation necessary for the local Directory. The number of families is 

EDUCATION— The proportion of illiterate in the City of Quebec 
is a little over 2 per cent. The attendance in schools is 90 per cent. It is 
estimated that 33 per cent of our population speak both languages. 

We have 9 public libraries; one under the control of the Provincial 
Legislature and open during the year, excepting the sessional period ; one 

<$> fPAGE 201 #> 

owned and managed by "L'Institut Canadien", a literary society founded 
81 years ago, where readers having to pay a few dollar fee for the use of 
books are also entitled to attend lectures by prominent writers and au- 
thors; one by Laval University for the benefit of their professors and 
pupils, as well as for the members of the professional classes who have 
been students in the great institution; the others are managed by religious 
and parochial authorities. 

SCHOOLS: — 90 teaching institutions have a total number of 25,000 
pupils. Quebec has 1 University; 1 Seminary (including a Grand Seminary 
for students in theology preparing for priesthood and a classic college) ; 
1 Commercial Academy; 1 Technical School; 1 Art School; 24 Business and 
Commercial Schools; 6 Business Colleges; 2 Protestant High Schools; 
sixty per cent are under the control of the Catholic and Protestant Com- 
missions, while the others are independent; but all are governed by the 
provisions of the Quebec Provincial Education Act. 

SCHOOL SYSTEM: — The members of our School Commissions are 
appointed, part by the Provincial Government and part by the City 
Council, but they are independent from both appointing bodies and have 
to follow the provisions of the law. 

School revenues derive from fees, from grants by the Provincial 
Department of Public Instruction and from taxes upon the value of pro- 

The School Commissions make an annual report to the City Treasu- 
rer giving a statement of the moneys needed to carry out their obligations 
towards the administration of the schools entrusted to their care during 
the coming year and the latter has to provide for the corresponding 
revenue out of a special tax on the real value of property; the present 
school tax rate is 95 cents per hundred dollar worth of property. School 
taxes are collected at the same time as the civic taxes and through the 
same organization, in order to save expenses for the Commissions. 

CHURCHES:— 44 Churches and Public Chapels are found in the 
City of Quebec. There are 21 Catholic parishes ; 4 Anglican Congregations ; 
1 Presbyterian; 2 United; and 2 of other denominations. 

Church revenues derive from the rent of pews, from fees for various 
services, from collections during ceremonies and from subscriptions by 
generous parishioners and members of Congregations. 

HOSPITALS:— 26 Hospitals and Refuges for the care of patients, 
old persons and orphans, serve not only the City but a surrounding territory 
with a population of 400,000 within a hundred mile radius. Specialists 
perform surgical operations in some of those hospitals; there are special 
institutions for the care and treatment of cases of tuberculosis, maternity 
and insanity, while contagious diseases are attended to in the Civic Hospi- 
tal under the City Health Department's supervision. Clinics for the treat- 
ment of eye, ear, throat and dental troubles, have been opened and are 
maintained at the City's expense, to attend, without any charge, to chil- 
dren in local schools belonging to poor families. 

Hospital and Refuge revenues come from fees, from grants by the 
Provincial Government, under the provisions of the Public Charity Act, 
and from public generosity. 



o to 

W *5 

W ^ 

o ^ 
S •** 

K •£ 






#> IfPAGE 221 <$> 

Their management by religious orders is eagerly appreciated and the 
cost of maintenance, under such conditions, is much lower than in similar 
institutions under lay supervision. To comply with the rule governing 
the said orders their members are vowed to live economical life to such a 
degree as to allow them to accept terms which no other class of people 
could even afford to consider. Their devotion and their charitable spirit 
towards patients and people in need are ranking far above any material 

HOUSING CONDITIONS:— The average rentals in the upper part 
of the City are $25. to $35. per month, while, in the lower part, they are 
$15. to $25. When house is heated at landlord's expense $10. must be 
added to rental. 

Mostly one to two family houses in the old wards; four to eight 
family houses and apartment houses increasing in number in the new 
wards. There are 21,803 homes in Quebec and 29 apartment houses with 
a total of 440 apartments. The rents in the apartments are from $40. to 
$180. a month, according to the number of rooms. 

Two new apartment houses are now built, one with 70 apartments 
and the other with 20 and 2 stores. 

GAS AND ELECTRICITY:— Gas rate is 15 cents per 100 cubic 
feet. Electricity rates are as follows: — Light, 5^" per Kwt H.; minimum 
of 70 cents. — Heat, 50 cents per switch and \y 2 cent per Kwt H. — Power, 
$1.25 per H. P. and a sliding scale of 3 to 3-10 cents per Kwt H. 

COST OF LIVING:— The average cost of living in the City of 
Quebec, including staple foods, fuel, lighting and rent, is $21.74 per week. 

CAR FARES: — Street car fares are the following: — 7 cents; 4 tickets 
for 25 cents; 17 for $1.; 6 labour tickets for 25 cts; 10 children tickets for 
25 cents. 

LABOUR CONDITIONS :— Labour conditions in Quebec are usually 
good. Very seldom has there been serious cause for worry about unem- 
ployment. Common labour is paid at an average of $3.50 to $4. a day; 
skilled labour wages are from $5. to $8. per day, as an average. 

VALUE OF PROPERTY:— The real value of property varies with 
the different parts of the City, even with the various streets in the same 
ward, according to the importance of the locality. It is impossible to give 
figures as an average. 

The assessment for municipal purposes is about 80 per cent of the 
commercial value. It is at the present time as follows: $102,928,689. for 
taxable property; $44,504,260. for exemptions, the said properties being 
assessed only for water rates; and $16,664,099. for the City's properties; 
making a total value of property of $164,097,048. or an average of $1,243.- 
16 per capita. 

MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION:— Under the French domina- 
tion, from 1608 to 1760, as well as after the advent of the British system 
of Government to 1831, municipal affairs in Quebec had been in the hands 
of the military authorities or their delegates, and of Justices of the Peace, 
in 1831, on the 31st of March, a charter was granted by the Parliament 
of the Province of Lower Canada; Royal sanction to the said charter has 

<S> ' fPAGE 24j $> 

been given, in England, on the 12th of April, 1832, and on the following 
5th of June a proclamation has been issued by His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor-in-Chief of Canada, Lord Aylmer, to put it into operation. 

The first members of the City Council have been elected in 1833; the 
Mayor was then elected by the Council; the same system prevailed till 
1836, when the charter expired. The administration has been returned 
to the hands of the Justices of the Peace till 1840, when the Mayor and 
the members of the Council have been appointed by the Government; 
later on, in 1842, and afterwards, the Council was elected by the people 
and the mayor by the Council, till 1857. In the latter year, an amendment 
to the charter provided for the election of the Mayor by the people, until 
1870, when they returned to the former system of the Mayor's election 
by the Council. Since 1908, the Mayor has been elected by the people. 

With the coming into office of the present administration the charter 
underwent new amendments, during the last session of the Provincial 
Legislature. An Administrative Committee has been formed, to be elected 
by the Council, and of which the Mayor is Chairman, with four aldermen. 
The City Council has thirteen members elected in six wards, one of which 
has three representatives; their term is two years and the elections take 
place in February. The Mayor and thirteen aldermen are in office from the 
1st of March following their election and the municipal year dates from 
the 1st of May. 

Eleven departments form the municipal administration, as follows: — 
Finance; Auditor; Public Works; Waterworks; Health; Police; Fire; Law; 
Clerk of Recorder's Court; Archives and Statistics; City Clerk. They are 
all responsible to the City Council. 

MUNICIPAL TAXES:— Our tax rate is lower than the average in 
sixteen of the largest municipalities in Canada and in eight American 
cities having about the same population. The municipal taxes are the 
following: — Assessment, $1.55 per $100. on the real value of property; 
$0.95 for schools; $0.50 for water; $0.08 for improvements, or a total of 
$3.08 per $100. or $30.80 per $1,000. worth of property. 

MUNICIPAL DEBT:— Quebec's municipal debt, on the 1st of De- 
cember last, was as follows: — Waterworks, $5,069,750.; other debentures, 
$13,625,246.17, a total of $18,694,996.17. Deducting the sinking funds, 
we have a net debt of $17,586,429.01, or an average of $133.18 per capita. 

Our debt per capita is lower than the average in eight of the largest 
Canadian cities. 

INDUSTRIES :— The City of Quebec is a growing industrial centre 
offering, as already stated, many advantages for the establishment of new 
industries. In 1927, seven new factories have been opened, one of which, 
the Anglo-Canadian Pulp and Paper Co., has a capital of fifteen millions 
and will employ several thousand people. 

Quebec is one of the most important boot and shoe centres in Canada, 
with no less than 38 factories of the kind ; there are also here more than 
225 industries including tanneries, printing and book-binding, tobacco, 
cigars and cigarettes, corsets, food products, furs, iron and metal works, 
breweries, wood, clothing, pulp and paper. 

225 industrial establishments reported, recently, that they were 
employing 10,000 people, with a capital of $50,000,000., paying salaries 

IfPAGE 26j # 

and wages amounting to $8,000,000. per year, with a material valued at 
$16,000,000. and products for a total value of $33,000,000. 

ELECTRICAL POWER:— There are 54,000 H.P. developed and 
in use, while 100,000 are immediately available and 250,000 may easily 
be supplied by several companies. 

In a radius of 100 miles, the following amount of power is obtainable: 
Grand'Mere, 164,000 H.P.; Shawinigan, 250,000; Chaudiere, 4,600; La 
Gabelle, 134,000; Montmorency, 7,500; St. Fereol, 24,000; He Maligne, 
450,000; a total of 1,034,100 H.P. 

COMMERCE: — Quebec has more than six miles of varied shops and 
stores. In the upper part of the City, Buade, Fabrique and St. John 
Streets form the retail shopping section. Lower Town is the centre for 
wholesale business, with St. Peter Street as the local Wall Street; a few 
wholesale merchants have their establishments in the Palace and St. Roch 

Quebec's trading area extends 75 miles West and South, and 100 miles 
North and East. 

205 main wholesale houses include groceries, meats, fruits, confec- 
tionary, drugs, furs, hardware, electrical fixtures, cigars, dry goods, men's 
clothing and furnishing, women's special shops, furniture and house fur- 
nishing, musical instruments, boots and shoes, candies, beverages, tires 
and auto accessories, packing houses, wood and coal. 

Recent statistics showed that 2,129 retail outlets had 822 proprietors 
and 1307 tenants ; the municipal value of their properties was $24,311,300. ; 
their assessment taxes amounted to $685,754.17; their business taxes 
totalled $188,664.53, while other taxes paid by the same retailers figured 
at $20,481.50. 

Those 2,129 retail merchants include groceries, meats, drugs, hard- 
ware, electrical fixtures, cigars, stationery, dry goods, departmental 
stores, men's clothing, men's furnishing, musical instruments, shoes, 
jewelry, bakeries, dairy products, autos, tires and auto accessories, public 
garages, gas tanks, wood, coal, building supplies, packing houses, passen- 
ger autos, commercial autos, confectionaries, delicatessen, dressmakers, 
florists, fruits, furniture, furs, tailors, milliners, opticians, photographers, 
radio supplies, restaurants, sporting goods, stationers, women's apparel. 

MEANING OF NAMES:— Canada, derived from "Kanata", an 
Indian word signifying a "collection of huts". — Quebec, from "Kepeck", 
meaning a "narrowing of the river". — Three Rivers: The place where 
the St. Maurice River enters the mighty St. Lawrence by three main 

WATERWORKS: — Our waterworks system is operated by gravity. 
Three main pipes, 40, 30 and 18 inches in diameter bring the water 
down from the St. Charles River which is dammed at about one quarter of 
a mile above the Village of Jeune Lorette and the crest of the dam is at 
elevation 483.0. The intake called the Chateau d'Eau is about 8 miles 
from the City. The St. Charles River basin has an area of 142 square miles. 

The 40 inch main was laid in 1913 ; the 30, in 1885 and the 18, in 1854. 
The total length of mains within the City limits is 110 miles while the 
drainage pipes run on a distance of 95 miles. 

The average daily consumption of water per 24 hours for the City of 



4k fr'AGE 28j <^ 

Quebec was 26,700,000 gallons, in 1924, when a special Commission of 
expert engineers made a complete survey of the waterworks system and 
a full report on the conditions of its operation. The Commission suggested 
seven main improvements to supply the City at the present time and to 
provide for a population of 300,000 within 25 years. One of their suggest- 
ions referred to the building of a 30,000,000 gallon reservoir on the heights 
of the City, forming an artificial lake which would have been located in 
the National Battlefields Park and would be made an ornament for that 
historical spot. The report of the Commission has been made public in 
January, 1925. 

PLACES OF AMUSEMENT:— Eleven theatres and moving picture 
houses provide 8,900 seats, while eleven public halls may accommodate 
14,000 persons seated. 

Quebec has 24 parks and open spaces with a total area of 375 acres. 
9 main parks have 360 acres. 

The Exhibition Grounds draw an increasing number of visitors, every 
year. Quebec has an annual Provincial Exhibition which is contributing 
to the progress of Industry and Commerce in the district especially to a 
considerable extent. Agricultural products are given also a prominent 
display and farmers from all parts of the Province are regular customers 
for the Exhibition. 

PORT OF QUEBEC— The Port of Quebec is a national sea-port; it 
is the terminal for fourteen principal lines, with accommodation for 22 
large ocean-going vessels at the same time. 

Nearly fifteen millions are now spent to further improve its natural 
and extraordinary advantages, making a total of over thirty millions spent 
for this purpose within 25 years. 

In 1922, 601 vessels entered the port with a total tonnage of 3,588,530. 
Since, the number of vessels increased steadily to a maximum of 1537, in 
1927, and the tonnage, as well, to 7,655,597. 

Apart from a modern outfit and equipment for all purposes, our port 
has up-to-date shops, two graving docks for the largest vessels afloat, two 
grain elevators, one of which has a capacity of 2,000,000 bushels, with a 
loading capacity of 60,000 per hour and an unloading capacity of 30,000. 

QUEBEC BRIDGE:— The Quebec Bridge is one of the greatest 
engineering feats in the world. Its total length is 3,239 feet; its width, 88; 
height above pillars, 310; length of cantilever, 1,800; length of centre 
span, 640; height of centre span above high tide, 150; total weight of 
metal structure, 66,480 tons; weight of centre span, 5,510 tons; total cost 
of metal structure, $14,500,000. Total cost of bridge, $25,000,000. 

The location of the bridge is at the narrowest point on the St. Law- 
rence River between Montreal and Quebec, the width at mean water level 
being about 2,000 feet. The water at this point has a maximum depth of 
about 200 feet and current at ebb tide about seven miles per hour. 

Although the project had been considered as far back as 1851, a 
design had been prepared and submitted to the Quebec Board of Trade 
only in 1884; but nothing had been done until 1900. Work had then been 
carried out till 1907, when the superstructure, which was half erected, 
collapsed with a crash that startled the whole world ; it was reported that 
between sixty to seventy men lost their lives in the accident. Work was 
resumed almost immediately and, in 1916, the great centre span fell into 

;|page 301 # > 

the river; notwithstanding this second catastrophe, the bridge was com- 
pleted by placing the centre span in position in September 1917. 

The first train passed over the bridge on the 17th of October, 1917, 
and the bridge was opened for regular train traffic on the 3rd of December, 

Negotiations are now under way for the construction of a highway 
on the bridge, which will likely be opened for traffic soon. 

POLICE FORCE:— Our Police Force dates from 1844. Prior orga- 
nization was in the hands of the military authorities, under both the 
French and English administrations. 

It is composed of 150 men, including detectives, a morality squad, 
mounted guards and motorcycle service. Through an up-to-date organi- 
zation our Police Officers are in regular communications with similar 
bodies in all parts of the world and they have played an important part 
for the arrest of noted criminals, on several occasions. Seventeen police 
stations are scattered in various parts of the City. 

FIRE BRIGADE:— Before 1866, fire protection in Quebec was left 
to voluntary organizations. A municipal service was then started and it 
has since been developed to meet the requirements of a growing city. 

With 183 men, our Fire Brigade is doing effective work. They are 
provided with modern fire fighting equipment valued at $200,000. There 
are fourteen fire stations scattered throughout the various wards in the 
City and the water is supplied by 1,300 hydrants. The services of our 
Fire Brigade have often been highly appreciated not only in Quebec, but 
even in outside territories where they had been required. 

FIRE PREVENTION:— Fire Prevention had to be provided at 
various times in the history of Old Quebec, as a consequence of serious 
conflagrations which devastated the City. Laws and by-laws were passed 
and put into force to prevent further misfortunes. But the official orga- 
nization of a municipal Prevention Bureau dates only from 1920, when 
a Fire Marshall, the Chief of the Fire Brigade, a Secretary, six inspectors 
and ten chimney surveyors were entrusted with the enforcement of regu- 
lations aiming at an effective prevention. 

Houses as well as industrial, commercial and other establishments, 
are regularly inspected; chimneys are periodically cleaned and reports 
are handed to the officers of the Prevention Bureau who are expected to 
make suggestion? in view of a better protection against fire. 

All fires are carefully investigated by the Fire Marshall who is bound 
to hear witnesses and to do all in his power to find the causes in order 
that they may be remedied. 

CITY'S PROGRESS:— Quebec's progress for the last sixty years, 
since Canadian Confederation, has been wonderful, while for the last 
period of thirty years it has been one of the striking features in the life of 
Canadian Communities ; during the last six years also there was a startling 
prosperity which, according to the general opinion, is but the beginning 
of a great era of progress and development. 

Since 1867, our population increased by 138 percent; our territory 
has been extended by 325 per cent; the value of property has grown up by 
1703 per cent and our municipal revenue has gone over 782 per cent. 



<& Fpage 321 #> 

Since 1895, a steady progress has been registered and the last six 
years have made a record in the history of our City. The value of property, 
during these six years, owing to new buildings and to the improvements 
made in several parts of the City, has increased by $29,340,448. 

In 1922, the number of tramway passengers had been 15,616,434, 
while, last year, it was 19.369,213, or an increase of 3,752, 779 in six years. 

Bank Clearings reached $284,684,618., in 1922, and, last year, they 
attained the $349,118,202. mark, or an increase of $64,433,584. in six 

The total number of building permits issued since 1910 has been 
13,216, with buildings valued at $54,695,581. 

Since 1921, 2,190 new buildings have been erected in Quebec, for a 
total value of $25,609,700. 

TOWN PLANNING:— A Town Planning and Conservation Com- 
mission is now operating in the City of Quebec to control the architectural 
appearance and the symmetry of the buildings in different zones to be 
established by the said Commission, to preserve the antique aspect of the 
historical parts and to state how and when alterations could be authorized. 
The Commission make regulations, to be approved by the City Council, 
to fix the residential and commercial streets, to establish parks and play- 
grounds, according to the requirements of an increasing population. 

BUILDINGS:— There are 11,616 buildings in the City. 

STREETS:— Quebec has no less than 425 streets, the length of 
which is 101. .6 miles. There are 41 miles of permanent pavings and. 60.6 
of improved roads, non permanent; the length of walks is 187 miles, of 
which 65 are permanently paved, while the remaining 122 miles are 
improved regularly, but not permanent. 

A FEW OTHER STATISTICS : — Quebec has 47 Banks and 
branches; 4 Daily Newspapers, one of which is English; 22 other perio- 
dicals, 2 of which are English; 6.730 automobiles; 20,300 telephones; 
34,300 electric meters; 9,300 houses with gas meters. 

Further information will be supplied with pleasure by the City Offi- 
cials and Officers, by the Automobile Club and the Historical Guides. 

CITY COUNCIL : Administrative Committee : His Worship the 
Mayor, Mr. J. Oscar Auger; the Council Leader, Alderman Dr. P. H. 
Bedard; and Aldermen J. Cantin, J. Emond and E. A. Tremblay. 

Other members of Council : Aldermen E. Bouchard, F. Dinan, 
A. Drolet, W. Lacroix, A. Lepine, A. Noreau, Dr. E. Parent, A. Poulin 
and W. Samson. 

City Clerk: Mr. F. X. Chouinard; City-Treasurer: Mr. P. N. 
Verge; City Archivist and Statistician: Mr. Valere Desjardins.